Indigenous Peoples and Human Rights

June 30, 2012

Brazil human rights defenders murdered after Rio+20

Brazil: Killing of human rights defenders Mr Almir Nogueira de Amorim and Mr João Luiz Telles Penetra

By Frontline Defenders
Posted at Censored News

On 24 and 25 June 2012 the bodies of human rights defenders Mr Almir Nogueira de Amorim and Mr João Luiz Telles Penetra were found following their disappearance on 23 June 2012.
Almir Nogueira de Amorim and João Luiz Telles Penetra, or "Pituca" as he was known, were both leaders of the Associação Homens do Mar – AHOMAR (Association of Sea Men) which was set up in 2009 to defend the rights of the fisher-folk working in Rio de Janeiro, and particularly those affected by the construction of a gas pipeline for Petrobras. Since the founding of the organisation its members have reported being subjected to death threats, physical attacks and killings. According to AHOMAR's members, the attacks are perpetrated by people linked to death squads, security guards hired by the companies in charge of building pipelines and militias operating in the region.

Politician and developers attempt to force Loop 202 on Gila River Indian Communtiy

Politician and Developers Attempt to Force Loop 202 on Gila River Indian Community after Voters Say ‘No'

By No South Mountain Freeway

Pangea Deception in ‘No Build’ Option

PHOENIX, AZ — Developers behind Pangea Corporation and Phoenix District 6 Councilmember Sal DiCiccio have threatened construction of Loop 202 freeway through Gila River Indian Community (GRIC) regardless of a recent vote against the proposed freeway.

Joey Perez, of Tempe based corporation Pangea, recently deceived the public on the status of the proposed Loop 202’s extension.

In a May 20 Arizona Republic article titled Gila River tribe may hold vote on Loop 202 freeway effort, Perez stated, "I've talked to community members and I've talked to landowners, and a vast majority of them ultimately feel very deceived by the no-build group and the community for not communicating correctly that if the 'no build' won, the freeway would still be built."

Perez, a Gila River Indian Community member and partner at private land development corporation Pangea, called the original referendum flawed because an option to vote "no build" was insufficiently explained.

Sal DiCiccio, District 6 councilmember, also provided misinformation in the same article regarding the freeway’s status. According to the Arizona Republic, DiCiccio and “others” have said, “’No Build’ was never a valid option.”

The Arizona Republic article further reported, “Officials from the Maricopa Association of Governments (MAG) have said planning for the $1.9 billion, 22-mile freeway will continue despite the vote.”

On February 8, 2012 GRIC members voted for the “No Build” option for the proposed202 freeway to prevent desecration of South Mountain, which has been held sacred since time immemorial. South Mountain is an area full of cultural significance to the Akimel O’odham and the Pee Posh, the two tribes that comprise that Gila River Indian Community.

“The fact of the matter is that it is not currently nor has it ever been predetermined for the Loop 202 to be expanded,” said Jezz Putnam. “A vast majority of community members from Ahwatukee, Laveen and GRIC have opposed freeway expansion. Due to widespread opposition, the Loop 202 has yet to be expanded since the nearly 30-year-old plans for expansion originated.”

“The fact that a corporation such as Pangea is now heading the efforts to expand the freeway through GRIC should also raise concerns,” said Putnam. “It has been the tribe’s formal decision through resolutions and voting to oppose the freeway. Why is a corporation leading the discussion on pushing the loop 202 on GRIC residents?”

Perez’s petition also raises many questions.

Where would the promised $2,000 for GRIC members each come from? How can Pangea, a private corporation, guarantee that payoff from the federal government? IfPangea has secured those funds, why couldn’t that money aid the construction of healthier alternatives to freeways that residents in Laveen and Ahwatukee have asked for? Another question regarding Pangea’s statements about their petition is how exactly could Pangea limit truck traffic from using the freeway if it were to be expanded.

In Arizona Department of Transportation’s (ADOT), Frequently Asked Questions pertaining to the Expansion of the Loop 202 ADOT says: “As the process moves forward, ADOT and MAG will continue to coordinate with the Community [GRIC] on remaining concerns and potential methods for mitigating those concerns.”

We ask, why should the process move forward at all? The concerns of the Gila River Indian Community have not been addressed by ADOT.Paloma Allen, a member of the Gila River Indian Community and a volunteer with Gila River against Loop 202 noted, “As 202 stakeholders, ADOT has violated our rights. It’s been about 25 years we’re waiting on that EIS [Environmental Impact Statement] from them. It’s required by law, and we have every right to know how our land would be impacted. I feel no vote, no Pangea petition, no further discussion about the 202 is warranted until we all have the basic facts about what the freeway could do to our clean air, our health, and our heritage.”

Why hasn’t GRIC been respected for not wanting the freeway on their land? And, most importantly, why would anyone be expected to vote on freeway expansion prior to seeing the Environmental Impact Statement?

ACLU: Court order forbids SB 1070's racial profiling currently

We've Only Just Begun: Standing up for the Rights of All in Arizona

By Victoria Lopez, ACLU of Arizona at 4:24pm
The highest court in the land has had its say. Politicians and media pundits have had their news cycle. And in Arizona, we’re back to where this all begins and ends—where the resolve of people across the state will again be tested in the coming weeks and months as the “show me your papers” provision of SB 1070 is implemented.
In Arizona, part of that resolve requires simply sorting out the facts. In their zeal to claim victory, Gov. Jan Brewer and others in Arizona have incorrectly announced that SB 1070 would take effect immediately. Inaccurate statements such as these are irresponsible and muddy the already dark waters. Yesterday, civil rights organizations, including the ACLU of Arizona, sent a letter to the attorneys representing Gov. Brewer and other defendants in the Friendly House v Whiting case, explaining that the court order forbidding implementation of SB 1070's racial profiling provision, Section 2(B), remains in place unless and until it is modified by a further order from a federal court. Until that time, no law enforcement agency in Arizona should implement Section 2(B).
In the meantime, on the ground, we’ve only just begun. As the Court foreshadowed, many legal questions about Section 2(B) remain to be resolved. Together with a coalition of civil rights groups, the ACLU is moving forward in Friendly House v Whiting, our legal challenge that raises the exact claims left open by the Supreme Court – including claims that SB 1070 is discriminatory, will lead to racial profiling, and invites the unlawful arrest and detention of people of color, including many born in this country. Several of the plaintiffs in our case have already faced racial profiling and unlawful arrest by local police, or are afraid that they will be discriminated against because of the color of their skin.
Read more:

June 29, 2012

Winnemem Wintu call for support June 29, 2012 to protect ceremony

Winnemem Wintu call for support to protect ceremony
Winnemem Wintu: Here are the young women who the
Forest Service has neglected to protect from harassment
during our Coming of Age ceremony.
Censored News
June 29, 2012
REDDING, Calif. -- Winnemem Wintu Chief Caleen Sisk asks any supporters who are still able to come with boats to come after all, since there is no indication from the Forest Service that they will have boats enforcing the closure.
"I just heard that USFS is not planning to have boats on the closure. They also don't have a plan for how they will close the river or where. Sounds to me like I have been tricked! I am callin...g on all the river closure supporters to gear up again at this short notice and come. "

Chief Sisk's letter to the BIA has been delivered: "It's time," she wrote, "the BIA stop the human rights abuses.”
Please supporters, let's flood the phones and email of Amy Dutschke, Regional BIA director in Sacramento, urging her to meet with Chief Sisk - (916) 978-6000; (916) 978-6099;
Tell the BIA to close the land for our ceremony tomorrow and restore the Winnemem's recognition! Chief Sisk has fasted for 12 days! And won't stop until she gets a meeting!
Read Chief's letter to BIA:

June 28, 2012

Klee Benally sentenced to 'community service' for defending Peaks

Ahee' hee' to everyone for the prayers and support!
- Klee

Klee locked down/Photo Ethan Sing
Klee Benally Sentenced To 'Community Service', Affirms Commitment to Defending Sacred Peaks

By Protect the Peaks
Censored News
French translation:

FLAGSTAFF, AZ -- Klee Benally, Dine' (Navajo), was ordered by Coconino Justice Court Judge Howard Grodman to perform community service as consequence to his prayerful act of resistance to desecration of the Holy San Francisco Peaks.
Klee took action on August 13, 2011 to address Arizona Snowbowl ski area's clear-cutting of 74 acres of rare alpine forest and the laying of 14.8 miles of a waste water pipeline in furtherance of a US Forest Service and City of Flagstaff supported project to spray artificial snow made of wastewater effluent on the Peaks, which are held holy by more than 13 Indigenous Nations.
The state prosecutor was seeking 12 months probation, restrictions barring Klee from going onto Snowbowl road, and community service. Defense attorney, Matt Brown of Brown & Little, P.L.C., argued on Klee's behalf.
During the sentencing hearing Klee responded expressing that restricting his ability to go onto the Peaks, including Snowbowl road, would place an "undue burden" on his religious freedom.
Judge Grodman stated, "I think that your motivations for protesting were genuine and heartfelt," he then offered the option for Klee to do community service in assisting with a Northern Arizona University class called "Investigating Human Rights."
"If you would be willing to participate in that class, assist in that class, I think you'd have a lot to offer the students, that would be the entirety of my sentence," stated judge Grodman.
When issuing his sentence, the judge expressed that he was unaware until recently, that Klee had made the documentary, "The Snowbowl Effect." Judge Grodman stated that he had used the film in a class he taught years ago.
Klee was also ordered to pay restitution to Arizona Snowbowl in the amount of $99.24 for construction worker's wages Snowbowl claims we're "lost" due to Klee's prayerful action.
“How can I be 'trespassing' on this site that is so sacred to me? This is my church. It is the Forest Service and Snowbowl who are violating human rights and religious freedom by desecrating this holy Mountain…” said Klee in a previous statement, “Their actions are far beyond ‘disorderly’.”
Klee Benally at Human Rights March
"This experience has shed light on what my ancestors, and all those who have gone before me in the struggle for justice and dignity, have faced. This experience cannot be isolated from the larger context of 500 years of colonial aggression. Our ways of life are being attacked by this 'justice' system, the Forest Service, and by those who value money more than life and ecological integrity."
"Indigenous Peoples in the United States have no guaranteed protection for our religious freedom. When our spirituality and cultural survival is threatened, what choice do we have but to take a stand? If Congress and the Obama administration don't take immediate action to address this critical issue, more and more people will put their bodies in front of Snowbowl's destructive machinery." stated Klee.
In August 2011, The Havasupai Tribe, Klee Benally, and the International Indian Treaty Council, filed an Urgent Action / Early Warning Complaint with the United Nations Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination (CERD), on the desecration of the Sacred San Francisco Peaks. CERD Chairperson Alexei Avtonomov responded to the complaint with a letter to the U.S. in March 2012, “The Committee requests information on concrete measures taken to ensure that the sacred character of [the San Francisco Peaks] for indigenous peoples are respected, including the possibility of suspending the permit granted to the Arizona Snowbowl, to further consult with indigenous peoples and take into account their concerns and religious traditions.”
Since June 16, 2011, nearly 30 people have been arrested during protests or other actions addressing Snowbowl desecration and eco-cide on the Holy Peaks. Most have taken deals offered by state prosecutors which have resulted primarily in community service, with about 8 cases still pending.
In a previous statement Klee affirmed, “The struggle to protect Dooko’osliid (San Francisco Peaks) continues, we must defend our ways of life and the natural law. As long as our hearts beat with an understanding that our actions are for future generations and cultural survival, then this struggle is not over.”
Klee Benally | - Independent Indigenous Media
Check out my jewelry and other items for sale on Etsy! - Indigenous Youth Empowerment! - Flagstaff Infoshop

Mohawk Nation News: 1701 Great Peace of Montreal


Mohawk Nation News

MNN.  27 July 2012.   The Great Peace of Montreal was completed on June 25th 1701.  It is the treaty that established the invaders’ right to live here.  Canadian history omits it. 

The French sued for peace to end their 92-year war with us, called the French and Indian wars. 

This treaty legitimized their presence on Great Turtle Island. All immigrants agreed to live according to the Kaianerekowa, the Great Law of Peace, through the Guswentha, the Two Row Wampum.  They would stay on their boat, not interfere with us, live in perpetual peace and could never own any of our territory.
Our younger brothers agreed to become of one mind with the natural world.  The Kaianerekowa is the great medicine that comes from the minds of humanity, to create peace and take care of each other. 

This is the only legal means by which anyone other than an ongwehonwe can live here.  

From the Arctic, Pacific, Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico  indigenous nations took part in the solemn ratification ceremonies. 

In July 1701 we took the wampums to the British at Albany, who had taken over the Dutch colony of New Amsterdam in 1684.  They agreed to the same terms.  From here the Nanfan Treaty 1701 gave the British permission to live with us in peace. 

In 1710 five Iroquois chiefs from each Haundensaunee nation went to Europe for the first and only time.  One chief died on the way.  They took the wampum belts to explain and ratify the Guswentha with the monarchs.  All 13 royal bloodlines attended.  Teeyeeneenhogarow, Sagaweathquatiethtow, Honeeyeathtawnorow and Etowohkoam were dubbed the “Four Indian Kings."

The hierarchical heads turned the visit into a big circus.  They didn’t want peace.  Only war, ‘ordo ab chao’.   

As a patriarchy they couldn’t let their women exercise female power.  Without it, the peace could not be adopted.   

The American Revolution was the first false flag.  It was waged to destroy the Great Law constitution of peace and turn it into the US constitution of war.  In 1779, the Americans sent 13,000 soldiers to Onondaga, the capital of the Iroquois Confederacy, to try to destroy the peace forever.  They could never extinguish the fire of the people. 

The British parked their ships in Quebec and took the year off so the Americans could try to finish us off. 

Under international law when such a treaty is broken, everything goes back to one day before the treaty was ratified.  In this case, June 24, 1701.  We never surrendered anything.  They reneged on living peacefully.  They are squatters.    

Once their hierarchy is gone and they give rights to their women, they can trace the roots to the Tree of Peace and establish peace with us.

Mohawks have not been to Onondaga since 1779.  We had to leave our home communities to save our people and maintain the peace.   Canada imprisons us here to continue their illusion of freedom, that this war was real.  It was all theatre.  The Mohawks will return to Onondaga to stand up the Tree of Peace. 

That’s when our traitors will have to return to a proper mind with us. The women will give three warnings to the errant leaders.  If they do not heed their warnings, the war chief drops the black wampum.  They may grab it before it hits the floor and redeem themselves.  If it hits the floor, the warriors smash in their heads with the war club to remove their errant minds. 

MNN Mohawk Nation News  For more news, books, workshops, to donate and sign up for MNN newsletters, go to  More stories at MNN Archives.  Address:  Box 991, Kahnawake [Quebec, Canada] J0L 1B0

June 27, 2012

Trail of Broken Promises reaches DC from Kansas


By Millicent M. Pepion
Censored News

LAWRENCE, Kansas -- On May 13, students from several universities left Kansas on a two-month journey to Washington, DC, to save the Wakarusa Wetlands, Lawrence's only remaining indigenous wetland prairie, from becoming the South Lawrence Trafficway (SLT). They call the journey the Trail of Broken Promises.

Tomorrow, Thursday, June 28, they will walk from Arlington Cemetery at 9 am, to the White House, ending at the steps of Congress where they will endorse the Protection of Native American Sacred Places Act, a draft piece of legislation which will protect sacred places.

The primarily on-foot trek attempts to address the difficulty of preserving sacred places within Indian Country by raising awareness of the WakarusaWetlands. Prompted by the proposed highway construction through the wetland behind Haskell Indian Nations University campus, the students traveled 21 days on the 1838 Potawatomi Trail of Death route to show appreciation to communities maintaining markers of remembrance.

The Trail of Broken Promises led them through 9 states ending in Washington D.C. 

The draft piece of legislation the students carry would amend the American Indian Religious Freedom Act of 1978, "to provide a right of action for protection of Native American Sacred Places," such as the WakarusaWetlands. It has been approved by the National Congress of American Indians.
The wetlands adjoin Haskell Indian Nations University, and have been used for ceremony, prayer, and education since Haskell's founding as a boarding schoolin 1884.

"Fighting to save the Wakarusa Wetlands extends beyond our campus," Mike Ofor, a student on the walk said. "Our journey recognizes all Native Americans and all sacred places left vulnerable to developers' agendas."

The Trail of Broken Promises needs help returning home from the capitol with donations for gas and provisions. All donations can be sent through Paypal to
Here are links to articles that document their progress and ToBP2012 websites:

These websites allow you to follow them on our journey digitally:
Facebook Page--!/pages/Trail-Of-Broken-Promises/300284686671395
Youtube Page---
Twitter Page----!/ToBP2012
Tumblr Page----
Flickr Page------

From Shirley Willard, Rochester IN:
Brenda – please add to your list of news about the Trail of Broken Promises: –which is Potawatomi Trail of Death Assn.,  see Trail of Broken Promises Walk and click. – which is American Indian Center of Indiana.
I have written several stories for the Rochester Sentinel but you have to be a subscriber to see the eEdition. However I put all my articles in

Long Walk 4 to Alcatraz: Listen Best of Long Walk Talk Radio

Earthcycles bus on arrival in DC
Long Walk 2008
Photo Brenda Norrell

Listen to Best of Long Walk Talk Radio
Long Walk 2 Northern Route

By Brenda Norrell
Censored News

Long Walk 4 Return to Alcatraz is currently walking

Censored News shares with you some of the best interviews and songs from the Longest Walk 2, northern route, from the five month broadcast across America in 2008.
The Longest Walk 4, Return to Alcatraz is being initiated by the original walkers on The Longest Walk in 1978. It has been postponed until 2013. The route from DC to Alcatraz is the same as Long Walk 2 northern route in reverse.

"The purpose of this Walk will be to reaffirm the heart of Traditional Tribal Sovereignty rooted in Cemony and land based spiritual relationships. We call on all Indigenous Peoples to come and support this Walk," Long Walk 4 said.

The Best of Long Talk Radio Longest Walk 2 northern route 2008

Long Walk 2 northern route
Penn. Capitol and Maryland campground
Photos Brenda Norrell
Voices across the west, Alcatraz to Western Shoshone
Paiutes of Stillwater, Nevada
Ute, Maori and Dakota Best of the Longest Walk
Choctaw Ben Carnes and Kahentinetha Mohawk Nation News
Walking the Talk: Miwok, Washo and Shoshone
Honoring the land, honoring the youths, with audio of Floyd Westerman
Kickapoo water and Navajo Resistance, Louise Benally

LW 2 Northern Route: Earthcycles radio bus with walkers
in Penn; Women's Walk to Sand Creek Massacre in
Colorado; Protest at Newmont mining in solidarity
with Western Shoshone in Denver.
Photos by Brenda Norrell

LW 2 Northern Route: Calvin on that long lonesome highway 50
through northern Nevada and Shoshone country;
the dear Duncans at Penn. powwow; Shoshone drum.
Photos Brenda Norrell.

Lakota Blockade Whiteclay June 29, 2012

Strongheart photo: Whiteclay blockade
Notice of Upcoming Blockade in White Clay, Nebraska
Friday, June 29, 2012

By Cante Tenza Okolakiciye - Strong Heart Warrior Society
Free and Independent Lakota Nation
Box 512, Hill City, South Dakota 57745

WHAT:  Traffic blockade of White Clay, Nebraska in order to stop the illegal transport of alcohol onto Pine Ridge Reservation. Friday will be one of the busiest days of the summer as monthly checks come out prior to the July 4th holiday.

On Thursday night, Chief Robert Greenwald of the Oglala Sioux Tribe (OST) Department of Public Safety agreed to cooperate with the blockade and enforcement of OSTCode 88.01.  Strong Heart welcomes this participation and noted Greenwald’s past statement in a May public meeting, that he wished to work more closely with traditional warrior societies like StrongHeart.

“The Strong Heart Warrior Society is asserting Lakota customarylaw, which is full sovereignty,” explained Strong Heart Headsman Canupa GluhaMani (Duane Martin Sr.).

“We are asking these stores to leave the Lakota people alone so we can have a future and implement rehabilitation of our people,” Martinsaid.

WHEN: Friday, June 29th from 10:00AM to 11:00PM

WHERE:  Borderbetween Pine Ridge Indian Reservation in South Dakota and the town of WhiteClay, Nebraska.

WHO:  Cante TenzaOkolakiciye, known as the traditional Strong Heart Warrior Society of theLakota Nation will be leading the blockade with support from OST Public SafetyHighway Division officers. Members of the Oglala Lakota Nation will be there insupport. Cheyenne River Sioux Tribe activist Laci Hale will be coordinating theparticipation of the women.  Deep Green Resistance will be present in solidarity.

OST lay advocates Susan Schrader and Carmen Yellow Bull arecalled upon to monitor the behavior of public safety officers in the enforcement of OST and sovereign customary law. Local, state, national and international media have also been notified of the blockade.

WHY: The small border town of White Clay sells over 13,000 cans of beer a day, or FIVE MILLION cans of beer a year to mostly Oglala Lakota people in an ongoing act of physical and spiritual genocide of the Lakota people. With direction from traditional Grandmother societies in Pine Ridge Reservation, Strong Heart has been at the forefront of trying tostop the illegal flow of alcohol into the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation forover 12 years. This zero tolerance ban is defined in Oglala Sioux Tribal Ordinance 88.01 as well as traditional Lakota customary law.

Cante Tenza Okolakiciye also known as the Strong Heart WarriorSociety of the Lakota Nation is an ancient Lakota warrior society as well as abroad-based civil rights movement that works to protect, enforce and restoretreaty rights, civil rights, and sovereignty of Native people and theircommunities across Turtle Island.

Lazy media aids Hopi Navajo water theft scheme

Media aids scheme to steal Hopi and Navajo water rights by not checking the facts, or reporting the news

By Brenda Norrell
Censored News
French translation:

June 27, 2012
Warriors Kris and Carlos walking and running to Window Rock
to defend Navajo water rights. The Navajo Council announced
Wednesday's council session to vote on water rights settlement
is cancelled. Photo Next Indigenous Generation.
The media has published false reports that the Hopi Tribe passed the Little Colorado River settlement, which is aimed at giving Hopi and Navajo water to non-Indians in Arizona, along with the coal fired power plant, Navajo Generating Station, one of the dirtiest in the US, and Peabody Coal.
The bill, devised by Arizona Senators Jon Kyl and John McCain and non-Indian attorneys, would require Hopi and Navajo to give up their aboriginal water rights. The water rights theft scheme is aided by paid armchair journalists and online aggregators who do not check the facts of what they are posting.
Kris Barney, Dine', arriving in Window Rock today, after walking and running from western Navajoland to defend sacred water, said, "We must remain strong and in unity, with our sacred thoughts, prayers and the gift of water through rain from above. They do not own life, they should not have the power to sell, trade or barter our lives, futures. The people have spoken. And Lightning flashes in the dark all across this Window Rock ..."
Three former Hopi Tribal Chairmen responded to false reports in the media and to false reporting by Hopi Chairman Shingoitewa concerning Senate Bill 2109, Navajo-Hopi Little Colorado River Water Rights Settlement Act of 2012.
Meanwhile, at the last minute, the Navajo Council announced that a Navajo Nation Council session today, Wednesday, June 27, to vote on the water settlement, is cancelled.
In a statement, the three former Hopi chairmen said that Hopi Tribal Chairman LeRoy Shingoitewa and Council Representative George Mase gave out false information that the Hopi Tribe approved the water settlement, when in fact, the Hopi Tribal Council, by a vote of 11 for, 4 against, and 0 abstentions, rejected the Kyl bill on June 15, 2012. Over 100 tribal members witnessed the event.
“Representatives from the Hopi villages, traditional leaders, allottees, and tribal members provided overwhelming objection to, and rejecting Senate Bill 2109 through written and oral testimony in a packed Hotevilla Elderly Center. Senate Bill 2109 favors non-Indian parties including owners of the Navajo Generating Station and the Peabody Coal Company; requires waiver of Hopi aboriginal and federal reserved water rights to the Little Colorado River; and waives any future claims for damages done to the Navajo Aquifer and sacred springs by Peabody Coal Company and owners of the Navajo Generating Station.”
“After hearing the people’s testimony, the Hopi Tribal Council passed Resolution No. H-072-2012 rejecting Arizona Senator Jon Kyl’s Senate Bill 2109. But, Shingoitewa has refused to sign this resolution forcing the former elected tribal leaders to file a formal complaint to the Hopi Tribal Council and demanding Shingoitewa’s immediate removal.
“Hopi Council Resolution H-072-2012 not only rejects Senate Bill 2109, it also prohibits Shingoitewa, the Water and Energy Team and the Hopi Tribal Council from further negotiations on Senate Bill 2109, including the Settlement Agreement. It also requires Hopi Chairman Shingoitewa to report the official position of the Hopi Tribe to Senator Kyl and the Department of Interior on the formal rejection of Senate Bill 2109.”
The official position of the Hopi Tribe is embodied in Resolution H-072-2012 which rejects Senate Bill 2109 and the proposed Settlement Agreement.
Read complete statement:

Media's false report on Hopi Council passage of water settlement

Former Hopi Tribal Chairmen respond to false reporting by Hopi Chairman Shingoitewa Concerning Senate Bill 2109, Navajo-Hopi Little Colorado River Water Rights Settlement Act of 2012

By Former Hopi Chairmen Ben Nuvamsa, Ivan Sidney and Vernon Masayesva
Censored News

Hopi water 1906 photo Edward Curtis
KYKOTSMOVI, Ariz. -- Hopi Tribal Chairman LeRoy Shingoitewa and Council Representative George Mase have been giving out false information that the Hopi Tribe approved Senate Bill 2109, the Navajo-Hopi Little Colorado River Water Rights Settlement Act of 2012, when in fact, the Hopi Tribal Council, by a vote of 11 for, 4 against, and 0 abstentions, rejected the Kyl bill on June 15, 2012. Over 100 tribal members witnessed this historic event.
Representatives from the Hopi villages, traditional leaders, allottees, and tribal members provided overwhelming objection to, and rejecting Senate Bill 2109 through written and oral testimony in a packed Hotevilla Elderly Center. Senate Bill 2109 favors non-Indian parties including owners of the Navajo Generating Station and the Peabody Coal Company; requires waiver of Hopi aboriginal and federal reserved water rights to the Little Colorado River; and waives any future claims for damages done to the Navajo Aquifer and sacred springs by Peabody Coal Company and owners of the Navajo Generating Station.

After hearing the people’s testimony, the Hopi Tribal Council passed Resolution No. H-072-2012 rejecting Arizona Senator Jon Kyl’s Senate Bill 2109. But, Shingoitewa has refused to sign this resolution forcing the former elected tribal leaders to file a formal complaint to the Hopi Tribal Council and demanding Shingoitewa’s immediate removal.

Hopi Council Resolution H-072-2012 not only rejects Senate Bill 2109, it also prohibits Shingoitewa, the Water & Energy Team and the Hopi Tribal Council from further negotiations on Senate Bill 2109, including the Settlement Agreement. It also requires Hopi Chairman Shingoitewa to report the official position of the Hopi Tribe to Senator Kyl and the Department of Interior on the formal rejection of Senate Bill 2109.

Leroy Shingoitewa and George Mase have been providing false and misleading information that the Hopi Tribe approved and endorsed the Kyl bill. They are doing this so they can continue the Little Colorado River water rights negotiations. Any negotiations by Hopi tribal officials would be in direct violation of Resolution H-072-2012 and would be grounds for Serious Neglect of Duty charges under the Hopi Tribe’s constitution.

Shingoitewa convened an illegal tribal council meeting on June 21, 2012, to force passage of a council resolution to “endorse” Senate Bill 2109. This he did out of total disrespect for the Hopi and Tewa people’s rejection of the Senate bill. Upon hearing of this action, many tribal members are angered and are demanding immediate removal of Hopi Chairman Shingoitewa and George Mase.

Resolution H-073-2012 is not the official position of the Hopi Tribe and its members. The official position of the Hopi Tribe is embodied in Resolution H-072-2012 which rejects Senate Bill 2109 and the proposed Settlement Agreement.


June 26, 2012

Federal Court of Appeals attacks public interest litigants

Federal Court of Appeals attacks public interest litigants

By Stephen Brittle
Photo Save the Peaks
President, Don't Waste Arizona
Censored News

French translation:
Thank you from Censored News to Christine Prat for
the French translation!


The message from the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals was clear: if you are concerned about the environment; if you want to protect Native American sacred areas; or even if you simply want to make sure that the federal government complies with its own environmental obligations, go home.  You are not welcome in the Ninth Circuit.

As Gary Marchant, the Lincoln Professor of Emerging Technologies, Law & Ethics at Arizona State University's Sandra Day O'Connor College of Law explains, “there is no question that [the San Francisco Peaks case involved] a valid set of claims that could have been decided either way [and] therefore is clearly not a case where sanctions would be appropriate or warranted."  Professor Marchant adds that ** "applying sanctions in a case such as this would have a chilling effect on the willingness of qualified counsel to take on controversial and important public interest matters of any type." **

What Happened:

Recently a three judge panel of the Ninth Circuit imposed sanctions on a pro bono attorney for the Save the Peaks Coalition.  In an opinion issued on June 21, 2012, Ninth Circuit Judges, J. Clifford Wallace, John T. Noonan, and Milan D. Smith, Jr., held that environmental and Indian rights attorney Howard Shanker acted in "bad faith," that he "grossly abused the judicial process," and that he "misled his clients."  As a result, according to the Ninth Circuit, Shanker has to personally pay all the costs of the intervenor-defendant Snowbowl Resorts Limited Partnership.  Here, however, is the rub.  The only thing Shanker is guilty of is providing competent representation to his clients for free (pro bono) on a politically charged matter of public importance.

Nothing in the entire record of this case provides any basis for a finding of bad faith, or an abuse of process, nor does it provide any other indication of unethical or unprofessional behavior on the part of Shanker.  Indeed, even the court's opinion is void of any reference to any specific behavior in the context of the case that could warrant a sanction.  Further, Shanker’s clients are adamant that he never misled them about anything - an allegation that appeared for the very first time in the Ninth Circuit's en banc  opinion. 

Judges are supposed to be neutral arbiters of the law.  Here, however, Judges Wallace, Noonan, and Smith are attacking Shanker's credibility and reputation, and imposing sanctions on him for bringing a case simply because it appears to be at odds with their ideological and political bent.  More recently, Judge Smith, the judge who wrote the Save the Peaks opinion, launched a political tirade in a dissenting opinion in Karuk Tribe of California v. U.S. Forest Service, where he rails against the enforcement of environmental laws as bad for business.  But that was just a dissenting opinion.  Smith didn't have the political majority in the Karuk case, like he did in Save the Peaks.  

The chilling effect that the Save the Peaks Coalition case could have on any attorney who might have otherwise been willing to help a community group, an environmental organization, or even a Native American tribe cannot be overstated. 

The message is clear, bring a case we disagree with and we will rule against you, attack your credibility, and impose sanctions on you - regardless of the facts or law of the case.  Apparently the federal courts no longer have to even try to keep up the façade of impartiality.

Shanker has indicated that he intends to file a petition for a rehearing en banc with the Ninth Circuit.  Such petitions are, however, discretionary and only rarely granted. 

The one thing we can truly learn from this process, is that no good deed goes unpunished.  Let this be a warning to attorneys, if there are any left, that want to protect the environment, ensure the integrity of Native American rights and sacred areas, and who feel compelled to champion the public interest over the short term economic gain of a few, especially if the attorney is willing to work for free.  

According to the Ninth Circuit, such misguided practitioners will from now on be punished for their willingness to stand up to the machine and to challenge the status quo - the law or facts be damned. 


June 25, 2012

Mohawk Nation News 'Canada's Day of Infamy'


MNN.  25 June 1012.  Every July 1st Canadians celebrate the birth of their corporation. 

By Mohawk Nation News

July 1, 1867 Canada was issued its corporate number through Washington DC from the City of London bankers.   All of the original shareholders were part of the 13 Royal bloodlines and still own the corporation.

At the Coliseum known as Parliament Hill, the thirsty masses gather to sing, “Oh Canada, our home on native land”, drinking, partying, revelry, fireworks, vacations and a long weekend;  all to scream and holler over their illusion of freedom.

PARENTS ARE FORCED TO SIGN THE BIRTH CERTIFICATE turning their children over to the corporation as a property of the shareholders.  [Under Roman Law capitus diminutio maxima].  They are traded as a commodity every day on the stock exchanges. 

Indigenous land and resources are usurped.  We Ongwehonwe are real people and not pretend. The natural world placed us here to be one with our mother and all of our relations. 

The corporation of Canada uses our natural resources as collateral to bolster the Canadian dollar.  This is theft.  When they force us to turn our babies into corporate property without our knowledge or consent, that is fraud of the highest order.  The corporations and their agents are the biggest “snakeheads” and human traffickers.    

The corporation enforces its by-laws through their admiralty court system.  The banks and corporations gave themselves illegal jurisdiction over all trade over the waters of the earth.  They extort fees from all other businesses and people.

Harper dismantled all the environmental protection laws that have been carefully crafted over 40 years with his new Bill C-38 (  Foreign corporations can now come in, destroy and squeeze every last resource out of the earth. They want to create more deserts that will not be fit for human habitation.   

These spoiled brat shareholders that have been in-breeding for thousands of years scream, “Gimme! Gimme!  It’s all mine!” Their lie called hierarchy is coming to an end.  The shareholders are saying, “Before the end, we are taking everything”.   

Despite their efforts, World War III will not happen.  Plan B is already operational, through many fronts, such as manipulation of food, air, pharmaceuticals, wars, etc. to cull 80% of their slaves worldwide.    

July 1 is a big drunken barbecue for the extremely ignorant unknowing public, whom are celebrating their slavery.As Stompin Tom sang, “The girls are out to bingo, the boys are getting stinko. There ain’t no need for INCO on a Sudbury Saturday night”.

MNN Mohawk Nation News  For more news, books, workshops, to donate and sign up for MNN newsletters, go to  More stories at MNN Archives.  Address:  Box 991, Kahnawake [Quebec, Canada] J0L 1B0

US Supreme Court upholds racial profiling

US Supreme Court upholds targeting people of color in Arizona

By Brenda Norrell
Censored News

TUCSON -- The US Supreme Court upheld racial profiling in its ruling on Arizona's SB 1070, while striking out other provisions. In reality this means that all people of color are targeted by Arizona police.

Jose  Matus, Yaqui and director of the Indigenous Alliance without Borders, responds to US Supreme Court decision
Jose Matus said, "All alien looking people and people of color, we must resist, with non-violent rebellion against SB1070 and work in solidarity with Derechos Humanos to repeal the High Court Decision on SB1070!"
"Should we be subjected to racial profiling? Should we be stopped and questioned. detained and charged with a state crime because we don't carry a passport to prove we are citizens, because we are Red, Brown or Mexican?" Matus, Yaqui ceremonial leader in South Tucson, told Censored News.
Matus said that the Indigenous Alliance Without Borders will, in partnership with the National Network for Immigrant and Refugee Rights, document abuse of authority and violation of rights. He said the Alliance will work closely with Derechos Humanos and all other community organizations to promote respect for human rights, Indigenous rights and immigrant rights.
The next Alianza Indigena Sin Fronteras meeting is in Phoenix, Saturday, July 7, 2012, at 10 am. The International Day of the World Indigenous People will be August 9, 2012.
Mike Wilson, Tohono O'odham, responds to Supreme Court decision

Mike Wilson, who has put out water for migrants for years, said, "Despite today’s' Supreme Court decision in favor of the provision upheld by the State of Arizona, S.B. 1070 remains an immoral law. Like the Supreme Court's 1896 decision in Plessy Vs. Ferguson that ruled in favor of racial segregation and state apartheid, history will judge this decision as equally immoral."
Wilson is the policy director for Border Action Network and spent years putting out water for migrants on Tohono O'odham land, where the largest number of migrants have died in recent years. The Tohono O'odham Nation passed a law making it a crime to aid a migrant, even giving a drink of water to a dying person. Now, the dying include Mayan women and their children, walking from Guatemala, Chiapas and Oaxaca to survive.

Amnesty International responds to Supreme Court decision on Arizona law on immigration enforcement SB 1070
Contact: Sharon Singh,, 202-675-8579, @spksingh
By Amnesty International
Posted at Censored News
WASHINGTON – Frank Jannuzi, the head of Amnesty International’s Washington office, issued the following statement in response to the U.S. Supreme Court’s decision to strike down major provisions of Arizona’s controversial immigration enforcement law, commonly known as SB 1070:
“Amnesty International welcomes the Court’s decision that the ‘right to work’ and possible criminal penalties for not carrying immigration documents provisions of SB 1070 are invalid because they encroach on federal responsibilities on enforcing immigration laws."
“However, we are disappointed that the Court failed to draw a clearer line in the sand against racial profiling. This leaves the door open for continued challenges as ambiguities in implementation still exist.”
Amnesty International is a Nobel Peace Prize-winning grassroots activist organization with more than 3 million supporters, activists and volunteers in more than 150 countries campaigning for human rights worldwide. The organization investigates and exposes abuses, educates and mobilizes the public, and works to protect people wherever justice, freedom, truth and dignity are denied.

Response from Border Action Network
JUNE 25, 2012
Border Action Network Statement Regarding the Supreme Court Rulings on Arizona S.B.1070
Border Action Network would like to share with you some of the comments from members of our organization and other organizations that are responding to the Supreme Court ruling.
The Court’s decision to reserve judgment on the discriminatory racial profiling provision, Section 2(b), comes at a tremendous human cost, because the rights of all Arizonans will be violated while this issue is resolved.
But we are confident that all of this law and others like it will ultimately be struck down as discriminatory racial profiling, as preempted by federal law, or both.
Although we are disappointed that the racial profiling provision has been allowed to take effect, importantly, the Supreme Court’s decision recognizes that the provision could cause constitutional problems and may violate federal law.
The Supreme Court also stated that if the law is interpreted to prolong detention it would be unconstitutional. In our lawsuit challenging Arizona’s S.B. 1070 we have raised precisely this constitutional challenge—as well as others—to the racial profiling provision. The Supreme Court’s decision leaves open legal challenges on these bases.
Border Action Network and other organizations will continue to press forward with our litigation, which raises such challenges. We will not rest until this unconstitutional provision is permanently stricken from Arizona’s law books.
The Supreme Court did not address the impact of S.B. 1070 on Arizonans or the harm that people in Arizona will suffer from S.B. 1070. We have real concerns that we will be guarding against as we move forward.
2(b) is wrong and/or immoral.
The Supreme Court has expressed reservations and concerns about section 2(b) given the limitations it placed on it.
There are potential constitutional problems with section 2(b) down the road.
Though making an effort to limit the opportunities for racial profiling, the Supreme Court still upheld one of S.B. 1070’s central and most offensive provisions, the requirement that law enforcement officers demand proof of legal status from anyone they suspect is undocumented. This “papers please” provision will directly lead to racial and ethnic profiling based on the way people look or the way they speak, regardless of whether they have been American citizens all of their lives.
Still, today’s ruling was narrow in that the Court only concluded that federal law did not pre-empt states from enacting these “papers please” laws. Lawsuits challenging the provision on racial profiling grounds will continue to be litigated, and we are confident that the measure will ultimately be struck down. Unfortunately, the Court’s ruling today means that while we await that future decision, the fundamental rights of all Americans living in those states will be degraded.
This decision is still a setback to civil rights in America, but it is not a defeat. The civil rights and immigrant rights communities will continue to fight against laws like S.B. 1070 in the courts, in state legislatures, and in Congress. These measures don’t exist in a vacuum. As recent polling shows, Latino voters are paying close attention to the court’s ruling, and a majority believes the decision will contribute to a hostile environment for Latinos. Moreover laws like these hurt our community, compromise our safety, bankrupt economies, and undermine our national unity, so it is not surprising that the rush to follow Arizona down this treacherous road has stalled. States that were considering copycat measures in 2012 all took a pass after seeing how costly and socially divisive these laws are.
The three components of the law that have been struck down are as follows:
Make it a state crime for undocumented immigrants not to possess their federal registration cards
Make it a crime for undocumented immigrants to work, apply for work, or solicit work
Allow state and local police to arrest illegal immigrants without a warrant when probable cause exists that they committed ‘any public offense that makes the person removable from the United States’
The court did uphold the “papers, please” provision, which requires state and local police to check the immigration status of people they’ve stopped if deemed “reasonably suspicious.”
The following are comments from our staff:
Juanita Molina, Executive Director
We will continue to advocate for the people of Arizona in the face of this law. We are a community that spans across international borders. No one's humanity should cease to be recognized at the border.
Racial profiling undermines the relationship between the community and law enforcement. This law puts undue burden on law enforcement and ultimately contradicts their primary purpose, which is to protect and serve this community.
Mike Wilson, Policy Director:
Despite today’s' Supreme Court decision in favor of the provision upheld by the State of Arizona, S.B. 1070 remains an immoral law. Like the Supreme Court's 1896 decision in Plessy Vs. Ferguson that ruled in favor of racial segregation and state apartheid, history will judge this decision as equally immoral.
Julissa Villa, Organizing Coordinator:
Disappointment, that's what I felt as I heard the decision of the Supreme Court in favor of the provision upholding the State of Arizona. Throughout history we have celebrated the integrity and wisdom of the Supreme Court in our country. We are saddened by their decision.
General staff comments ON THE PROVISION UPHELD:
We are very disappointed that State rights trump Federal law on this provision.
We are moving from a country that is based on Federalism and has a Central government - to a confederation.
We believe we are going backwards as a country towards disintegration.
 Our Community will live in fear of law enforcement.
Oppressive practices make law enforcement less effective.
This will obstruct daily function of law enforcement with unreasonable practices.
As plaintiffs in the civil rights coalition's challenge to the law we will continue to fight it on the grounds that S.B. 1070 violates our constitutionally protected civil rights.

NNIRR's Response to the US Supreme Court Ruling on Arizona's SB 1070:
Court Ruling Invites More Racial Profiling in Arizona
Need to Ensure Rights, End Discrimination against 'Reasonably Suspicious' (Brown) People
In allowing the notorious "show me your papers" provision of Arizona's SB 1070 bill, the U.S. Supreme Court effectively supports the rollback of rights and protections that have been long fought for and honored in this country -- specifically,  the freedom from racial discrimination. Importantly, the Court struck down the other three provisions that had been challenged in the case.
Ruling on whether or not the "show me your papers" provision (Section 2B) "pre-empted" federal authority in immigration, the highest court in the country decided it was "premature" to block it. However, we are alarmed that this provision, very much the heart of SB 1070, can only be implemented through racial profiling.
The provision requires state and local law enforcement to determine the immigration status of any person lawfully stopped, detained or arrested whenever there is "reasonable suspicion" that the person may be undocumented, and to verify that person's status with the federal government.
As an Arizona community leader has pointed out, "and we know what 'reasonable suspicion' is: brown skin."
Although the ruling left open the potential for legal challenges on the implementation of the law, we are deeply concerned, in the meantime, about the rights and protections of our communities in Arizona. Already, it has been the practice of police in the Tucson sector to "hold" people they have stopped for 20 minutes until they can make contact with a federal agent - not a problem given that there are literally thousands of Border Patrol agents constantly milling around, particularly with the decrease in cross border migration. This practice will undoubtedly increase the number of immigrants who are being detained and deported simply because they were driving their children to school, going to a grocery store, or just going about their daily lives.
While the ruling, overall, reaffirmed that the federal government has the exclusive authority to regulate immigration, we cannot forget that it was the federal government's introduction of programs such as 287g (authorizing local and state policing agencies to engage in immigration enforcement) and Secure Communities that laid the groundwork for state initiatives like SB 1070.
SB 1070 was just one of many divisive pieces of state legislation (like the 'stand your ground' law) drafted by ALEC, the American Legislative Exchange Council and promoted by conservative policymakers, who claimed the federal authorities were not doing enough to "stop illegal immigration." While states may avoid legislative language that was struck down by the Supreme Court, more copycat bill efforts may be renewed that are centered on the "show me your papers" provision.
The Supreme Court ruling, as well as the temporary nature of the recent reprieve from deportation for some young immigrants, continue to point to the need for a fair and just legalization program that will ensure access to rights and freedom from the fear of deportation for undocumented immigrants. We will continue to challenge anti-immigrant state laws and punitive federal enforcement programs like Secure Communities that result in detentions, record-level deportations and the separation of families.
As strategies to resist the effects of SB 1070 are underway in Arizona and elsewhere, we join our members in Arizona in calling for a repeal of SB 1070 in its entirety and urge vigilance in the monitoring of SB 1070 as it is implemented. We further call on President Obama to take all necessary steps to protect the communities of Arizona and other states from the scourge of racial discrimination, harassment, and abuse and to commit to humane, fair and durable immigration reforms.
For background material and resources on the Supreme Court ruling and SB 1070, please see our blog here.

June 23, 2012

Northern Paiute traditional hunter Kwassuh's letter to Nevada governor

Northern Paiute Kwassuh, Wesley Dick, has drafted this letter to Nevada Gov. Brian Sandoval, requesting dismissal and disclosure of State of Nevada Wildlife charges. Kwassuh explains the ceremonial reasons for traditional hunting.
By Wesley Dick Jr. (Kwassuh)
Censored News

Governor of Nevada Brian Sandavol
June 23, 2012

Dear Sir:
My name is Kwassuh/Buckskin a.k.a. Wesley Dick Jr. and I am an enrolled member of a federally recognized tribe, Fallon Paiute-Shoshone Tribe of Nevada.  I ask for the respect and acknowledgement on behalf of myself and the traditional peoples across and over these lands that practice and live our sacred and unique traditional lifeways and the laws that protect and preserve these lifeways.
I stand as a traditional man of the Numa/Northern Paiute Nation of Nevada and as a father to provide for my family and my people of our ceremonial and traditional lifeways of the Numa/Northern Paiutes of Nevada that are known throughout these lands including several other related nations of tribal people along with the 564 federally recognized tribes, the unrecognized and also the terminated tribal people that live amongst the lands of the United States of America today.
This request is of good relations towards the indigenous people and the people of the state of Nevada as well as the United States of America concerning these multiple violations of State Wildlife Officer Buckland Tingle and the State of Nevada Wildlife Department concerning disrespect, disregard of treaties, laws recognized nationally and internationally protecting my inherent rights as a descendant of the original peoples of this land to continue our sacred and unique lifeways and traditions of the Numa/Northern Paiutes of Nevada.
As I first met with Officer Buckland Tingle, I shook his hand and told him I come in a good way and expect him to do the same.  I then introduced myself, my tribe, where I am from, my federally recognized I.D.; the same as my people did in the past.  I then described what I was doing and what I still needed to do in regards to my prayers, the ceremony, and the preparations to the Tunna/Antelope.  I then told him of the rights I carry with me, and handed him from my hand to his, to read.  After an hour of his investigation, I was placed under arrest while I told/advised him of the disrespect towards the laws.  I provided these laws and my rights to provide for my family, my people, and my ceremonial tasks of hunting, and the process I learned from my elders of the spiritual recognition of the Tunna/Antelope and the area I stood that is always done in ceremony which provided my people the Numa/Northern Paiute with the plants and animals of these lands for thousands of years with no interference.
I openly advised the State Wildlife Officer of my status, identification, my laws and rights; he decided on his own to disregard.  These laws I provided to him, is the same I am including with this letter.  I also can provide more information.  As my related tribal relative nations of people are winning court challenges throughout and across these lands, these laws of our inherent rights protect us and preserve our lifeways and we should not be punished, prevented, or prosecuted for being what and who we are as the Native Americans of these lands.
Indigenous peoples worldwide are still in existence, as I have been a known teacher, demonstrator, instructor, mentor, and ceremonial provider/supporter for many years.  It is also world known of the importance of continuing our lifeways to pass this to our children and future generations, this knowledge to live the good life and stand as our ancestors have from thousands of years past to today is shared with all indigenous peoples of the world.
I request a dismissal and disclosure of these State Wildlife Charges and also that all my belongings be returned to me immediately as I have been tremendously delayed culturally, financially, and spiritually.  And an end to these distractions and interferences amongst my peoples of the Numa/Northern Paiute Nation, Newa/Shoshone Nation, and the Washoe Nations of Nevada and the recognition and respect that is due these laws and treaties.
This spiritual disrespect not only interferes with my prayers for my family, Earth, and all my surroundings including the Tunna/Antelope’s ceremonial circle of life, it has clearly affected our connection towards this animal as I, Kwassuh, have visions and dreams of these Tunna/Antelope that stand and watch me as I cannot connect their spirit towards their ending so they are like lost and blood from the liver is to be taken and gifted to the Earth, along with tobacco, to ensure that three more Tuna/Antelope will take it’s place.  There are several more ways I learned and keep to myself and I now sense the sadness of the Earth and Creator from whom I asked for the blessings to take part in our sacred ways that were of goodness, honor, and gratitude.  There are unfinished prayers and the ending methods that I was taught by my own people; they need to be completed.  I also advised these officers that this interruption/interference towards my traditional ways and the importance of my request, may bring some honor towards my traditional relationship I described when these request have been returned to me and I will complete/fulfill my ceremony as it should be.
Immediate attention to these matters is of great importance for this good relationship between said Indian nations and all governmental agencies to understand and honor.  These laws are easy to acknowledge, understand and are recognized daily throughout this nation; it is the law. 
Wesley Dick Jr. (Kwassuh)
Enrolled member of the Fallon Paiute-Shoshone Tribe.
A federally recognized tribe of the United States of America

Kwassuh – means Buckskin in the Numa/Northern Paiute language.
Numa – means Northern Paiute in the Northern Paiute language.
Toi-Ticutta – means the Cattail Eaters in the Northern Paiute language.